Friday, 21 September 2012

Marine Boilers

1. General considerations governing design of boilers, stresses in boilers, staying of flat surfaces, compensation, rating of boilers, efficiency, equivalent evaporation, regulations relating to material used, test on materials.



2. Tank type boilers - brief descriptions of Scotch type, Cochran, Clarkson Thimble, Spanner, Aalborg.



3. Water tube boilers - advantages over tank type boilers, components & functions of water tube boilers, headers, down comers, risers, water walls, screen tubes, superheaters, economizers, air economizers, brief description & operation of Babcock Wilcox, Yarrow, Foster Wheeler D type, Foster Wheeler ESD type, Aalborg water tube boilers.



4. Super heat control, attemperator, desuperheating, Babcock & Wilcox selectable super heat, Foster Wheeler Controlled superheat boiler, Package boilers, dual pressure boiler with steam to steam generator.



5. Composite boilers - brief description & operation of Scotch, Cochran & Spanner composite boiler.



6. Forced Circulation Boilers - advantages, forced water circulation, forced steam circulation & once through boilers, waste heat recovery calculations, waste heat boilers - Cochran, Spanner, Waste heat economizers - La Mount type.



7. Boiler Mountings - operation & maintenance, safety valves - ordinary, spring loaded, improved high lift type, full bore safety valve, Hopkinson Hylift safety valve, Consolidated safety valve, safety valve adjustments, main stop valves, feed check valves, feed water regulation, water level indicators - remote & direct types, water level indicators - direct & remote type, blow down valve, pressure gauge, internal fittings - baffles, directors, float, separators, soot blowers, alarms - low & high water level, low & high steam pressure & flame failure alarms.



8. Furnace & combustion - refractory materials, maintenance, air register, combustion in a boiler furnace, roof fired burners, types of burners - simple pressure jet atomizer, spill type, variable orifice type, steam assisted type, spinning cup & ultrasonic burners.



9. Auxiliaries for boilers - pumps, pipeline layouts, filters & heaters, automatic combustion control.



10. Construction & assembly of tank type boilers, water tube boilers, tests during combustion, hydraulic test, steam raising, operating procedures, opening up a boiler for inspection.




11. Common problems in boilers - corrosion, erosion, overheating, cracking, mechanical damage, soot fires & hydrogen fires.



12. Boiler water treatment & chemicals used in treatment.



13. Steam turbines - advantage, types of turbines - impulse, pressure compounded impulse, velocity compounded impulse, pressure velocity compounded impulse, Parson reaction turbines, Turbine bearing lubrication, safety equipments on turbines.


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